Given modern technology and the fact that it is now easier to travel, freedom of movement allows Europeans to expand their horizons beyond national borders, to leave their country for shorter or longer periods, to come and go between EU countries to work, study and train, to travel for business or for leisure, or to shop across borders. Note: The value for different categories of country of birth may not sum to the totals due to rounding. Economic Outlook. In the case of Luxembourg, Portuguese citizens accounted for the largest share, followed by French, Italian and Belgian citizens, while in the case of Hungary EU-27 nationals acquiring citizenship were almost exclusively Romanians. Click here to browse the ONS statistics for yourself. Highest share of foreign population in Luxembourg, lowest in Romania. Regular immigration: the EU is competent to lay down the conditions governing entry into and legal residence in a Member State, including for the purposes of family reunification, for third-country nationals. Select background. In destination countries, international migration may be used as a tool to solve specific labour market shortages. Numbers are sharply down from their 2015-16 peak because of a 2016 EU deal with Turkey, new border fences in the Balkans, and a 2017 bilateral arrangement between Italy and Libya, but tens of thousands of people are still trying to reach Europe.The UNHCR says Spain has taken in On 15th of November 2017, the updated European Agenda on Migration focused on the refugee crisis, a common visa policy, and Schengen. This article presents European Union (EU) statistics on international migration (flows), number of national and non-national citizens in population ("stocks") and data relating to the acquisition of citizenship. Department for Work and Pensions, National Insurance number allocations to adult overseas nationals: January 2002 to September 2019. On 1 January 2019, Belgium, Ireland, Luxembourg, Austria and Slovakia were the EU-27 Member States where non-nationals were mainly citizens of another EU-27 Member State. As reported in the July 2018 migration statistics quarterly report, Home Office visa and Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) data show that non-EU long-term student immigration has remained broadly stable since 2013. They cover regulated movements of foreigners as well as free movement migration. Source: Eurostat, First permits by reason, length of validity and citizenship [migr_resfirst], This website uses cookies for its functionality and to analyse how users are engaging with the site. Africapolis. The number of people acquiring the citizenship of an EU-27 Member State in 2018 was 672.3 thousand, corresponding to a 4 % decrease with respect to 2017. A total of 22 of the EU-27 Member States reported more immigration than emigration in 2018, but in Bulgaria, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania and Romania the number of emigrants outnumbered the number of immigrants. Also in 2019, EU countries granted protection to 295,800 asylum seekers, down from 333,400 in 2018, which was almost 40% lower than in 2017 (533,000). In the case of Latvia and Estonia, the proportion of citizens from non-member countries is particularly large due to the high number of recognised non-citizens (mainly former Soviet Union citizens, who are permanently resident in these countries but have not acquired any other citizenship). A total of 3.9 million people immigrated to one of the EU-27 Member States during 2018, while 2.6 million emigrants were reported to have left an EU-27 Member State. Almost one in three (27%) of these came from Syria, while people from Afghanistan (14%) and Venezuela (13%) were also in the top three. People in the EU: who are we and how do we live? Pablo Tosco / Oxfam Intermón. Member States and EFTA countries by inclusion/exclusion of asylum seekers and refugees in the data on population reported to Eurostat in the framework of the Unified Demographic data collection Reference Year 2018, Note: Norway (Asylum seekers and refugees without residence permit are not included), Member States and EFTA countries by inclusion/exclusion of asylum seekers and refugees in the data on migration reported to Eurostat in the framework of the Unified Demographic data collection Reference Year 2018, Note: Norway (Asylum seekers and refugees without residence permit are not included); Ireland (Refugees who do not live in a private household are not included). The EU-27 aggregates on Acquisitions of citizenship data for 2012, 2011 and 2010 include Romanian data for 2009. Table 6 presents a summary of the five main groups of foreign citizens and foreign-born populations for the EU-27 Member States, the United Kingdom and EFTA countries (subject to data availability). Publications on statistics (EU bookshop) Most consulted statistics. Citizens of EU-27 Member States who acquired citizenship of another EU-27 Member State amounted to 89.6 thousand persons, thus accounting for 13 % of the total. Current news. Source: Eurostat (online data codes: migr_imm1ctz and migr_pop1ctz), Migration and acquisition of citizenship data. Try the new automatic translation by clicking on the blue icon “Translate” up in the right corner of the article! Relative to the size of the resident population, Malta recorded the highest rates of immigration in 2018 (55 immigrants per 1 000 persons), followed by Luxembourg (41 immigrants per 1 000 persons) — see Figure 2. One commonly used indicator is the ‘naturalisation rate’, defined here as the ratio between the total number of citizenships granted and the stock of non-national residents at the beginning of the same year. However, since citizenship can change over the life-time of a person, it is also useful to analyse information by country of birth. In addition, there were 13.3 million persons living in one of the EU-27 Member States on 1 January 2019 with the citizenship of another EU-27 Member State. Find a country by name. Alternatively, employers can make the selection so that migrants already have a job upon their arrival. Definition: This entry includes the figure for the difference between the number of persons entering and leaving a country during the year per 1,000 persons (based on midyear population). However, most “blue” and “red” countries in the map have been losing population for several decades. Strictly Necessary Cookie should be enabled at all times so that we can save your preferences for cookie settings. As stated in Article 2.1(a), (b), (c) of Regulation 862/2007, immigrants who have been residing (or who are expected to reside) in the territory of an EU Member State for a period of at least 12 months are enumerated, as are emigrants living abroad for more than 12 months. Historically, the relative economic prosperity and political stability of the EU are thought to have exerted a considerable pull effect on immigrants. In July 2006, the European Commission adopted a Communication on policy priorities in the fight against illegal immigration of third-country nationals (COM(2006) 402 final), which aims to strike a balance between security and an individuals’ basic rights during all stages of the illegal immigration process. Spain is the most welcoming EU country for refugees, survey finds A Pew Research Center study of 18 nations says that 86% of Spaniards believe people fleeing violence and war should be accepted in the country. Non-nationals in these four Member States collectively represented 71 % of the total number of non-nationals living in all of the EU-27 Member States, while the same four Member States had a 58 % share of the EU-27’s population. Europe has been a crossroads of human mobility since ancient times. yearly; quarterly; monthly ; latest data available. Some countries use mirror statistics, sample surveys or estimation methods to produce migration statistics. Permanent immigrant inflows cover regulated movements of foreigners considered to be settling in the country from the perspective of the destination country. Two other issues of the Demographic Yearbook, published respectively in 1985 and 1994 , include a limited number of tables pertaining to international arrivals and departures. Since 2008 the collection of migration and international protection data has been based on Regulation 862/2007 and the analysis and composition of the EU, EFTA and candidate countries groups as of 1 January of the reference year are given in the implementing Regulation 351/2010. These were the only EU-27 Member States where national immigration accounted for more than half of the total number of immigrants — see Figure 3. Migration policies within the EU in relation to citizens of non-member countries are increasingly concerned with attracting a particular migrant profile, often in an attempt to alleviate specific skills shortages. Of the 78,600 Syrians granted … On 1 January 2019, the median age of the national population in the EU-27 was 45 years, while the median age of non-nationals living in the EU-27 was 36 years. Source: Eurostat, Population on 1 January by age group, sex and country of birth [migr_pop3ctb], Source: Eurostat, 'Population on 1 January by age group, sex and country of birth', [migr_pop3ctb]. In contrast, non-nationals represented less than 1 % of the population in Poland (0.8 %) and in Romania (0.6 %). Definitions This domain comprises series of long-term international immigration during the reference year. Germany had the highest number of persons acquiring citizenship in 2018, at 116.8 thousand (or 17 % of the EU-27 total). Africapolis. Population and Vital Statistics. The distribution by age of foreigners shows, compared with nationals, a greater proportion of relatively young working age adults. Eurostat International Migration statistics: Immigration; Dataset | 15 January 2021. Migration flows: Immigration to the EU-27 from non-member countries was 2.4 million in 2018 A total of 3.9 million peopleimmigratedto one of theEU-27Member States during 2018, while 2.6 million Public opinion – Eurobarometer. Acquisitions of citizenship were down by 4 % in 2018. Some of the most important legal texts adopted in the area of immigration include: Legislative documents - European Agenda on Migration, Press material - European Agenda on Migration. Italians are the worst in the EU at over-estimating the proportion of immigrants living in their country, a new report claims. Concerning the definitions of age for migration flows, please note that 2018 data concern the respondent’s age reached or age at the end of the reference year for all EU-27 Member States with the exception of Ireland, Greece, Austria, Malta, Romania and Slovenia. Until the end of the Second World War, most migration was within and out of Europe. The Office for National Statistics (ONS) estimate that in 2019, nearly 9.5 million people living in the UK were born abroad, just over 14% of the total population of the UK. The data presented are the result of a standardisation process that allows for cross-country comparisons. If an asylum seeker lodges once more an application in the same country after any period of time, (s)he is not considered again a first-time applicant. Germany: the largest number of immigrants and emigrants. This means that every time you visit this website you will need to enable or disable cookies again. Migration flows: Immigration to the EU-27 from non-member countries was 2.4 million in 2018, Migrant population: 21.8 million non-EU-27 citizens living in the EU-27 on 1 January 2019, Acquisitions of citizenship: EU-27 Member States granted citizenship to 672 thousand persons in 2018, Migration and migrant population statistics: tables and figures, Green paper on an EU approach to managing economic migration, policy priorities in the fight against illegal immigration of third-country nationals, third annual report on migration and integration, strengthening the global approach to migration: increasing coordination, coherence and synergies, action plan implementing the Stockholm programme – delivering an area of freedom, security and justice for Europe’s citizens, Directorate-General for Migration and Home Affairs, Article 20 Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Article 21 Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Article 79 Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union, Migrant integration statistics introduced, Population and population change statistics, Residence permits - statistics on first permits issued during the year, EU Member States granted citizenship to over 800 thousand persons in 2017, EU Member States granted citizenship to almost 1 million persons in 2016, EU Member States granted citizenship to fewer persons in 2015, Foreign citizens accounted for fewer than 7% of persons living in the EU Member States in 2014. This page has been accessed 688,093 times. The report noted that EU citizenship brings new rights and opportunities. Immigrants into EU-27 Member States in 2018 were, on average, much younger than the total population already resident in their country of destination. Foreign-born population (% of total population) in EU Member States as of 1 January 2019: Country % Born in other EU Member State % Born in non-EU country % Total foreign-born population: Luxembourg: 35.0: 11.8: 47.3: Cyprus: 14.2: 7.0: 21.1: Ireland: 12.7: 4.5: 17.2: Malta : 9.8: 10.4: 20.2: Austria : 8.9: 10.6: 19.4: Belgium: 7.9: 9.3: 17.2: Germany: 7.8: 10.2: 17.9: UK: 5.5: 8.7: 14.2: Sweden : 5.5: 13.6: 19.1: … Romanians and Poles account for over 30% of foreigners in the EU and EFTA, although the state of immigration differs wildly from country to country. The nearly 50 million U.S. residents in 2017 who hailed from outside the country… In Luxembourg and Hungary the majority of new citizenships granted were to citizens of another EU-27 Member State. More. Regarding the gender distribution of immigrants to the EU-27 Member States in 2018, there were slightly more men than women (54 % compared with 46 %). This page was last modified on 16 November 2020, at 10:42. Remove all. The European migration network annual report on immigration and asylum (2016) was published in April 2017. It is harder to keep track of people leaving a country than those arriving, because for a migrant it is very often much more important to interact about his/her migration with the authorities of the receiving country than with those of the country he/she is leaving. This websites uses cookies for its functionality and to analyse how users are engaging with the site. This defines a core set of statistics on international migration flows, population stocks of foreigners, the acquisition of citizenship, residence permits, asylum and measures against illegal entry and stay. 16 July 2019 Immigration 2018: Germany grew by 400,000 people. Back to Immigration statistics year ending December 2018 content page.. By contrast, the largest increases in absolute terms were observed in Spain (24 300 more persons were granted Spanish citizenship compared with 2017), followed by Portugal (+3 300) and Luxembourg (+2 000). These new EU-27 citizens were mainly from Africa (28 % of the total number of citizenships acquired), Europe outside of the EU-27 (25 %), Asia (16 %) as well as North and South America (14 %). Significant resources have been mobilised to fight people smuggling and trafficking networks in the EU. This statistic shows the number of accepted first instance asylum applications in some of the European countries in 2018, broken down by country. The EU-27 aggregates on Population by citizenship data as of 1 January 2019 includes UK in the composition of the EU because EU-27 data is not available for Cyprus and Malta. In order to bring about the changes agreed upon, the European Commission enacted an action plan implementing the Stockholm programme – delivering an area of freedom, security and justice for Europe’s citizens (COM(2010) 171 final) in 2010. A total of 20,760 have arrived in Greece so far this year, bringing the total number of arrivals in the EU in 2018 to just over 76,000. On 1 January 2019, the median age of the total population of the EU-27 stood at 43.7 years, while it was 29.2 years for immigrants to EU-27 in 2018. By contrast, Poland reported low shares of foreign-born, 2 % of its total population on 1 January 2019, followed by Bulgaria (2.5 %), Romania (3.2 %) and Slovakia(3.6 %). This website uses Google Analytics to collect anonymous information such as the number of visitors to the site, and the most popular pages. All; OECD (37) European Union (27) Euro Area (19) G7; G20; None; Time. More. Before this, detailed statistics on international migration flows and stock were published by the United Nations Statistics Division in two issues of the Demographic Yearbook: 1977 and 1989. Citizens of EU Member States have freedom to travel and freedom of movement within the EU’s internal borders. Europe also played a crucial role in developing a set of rules and norms regulating human mobility in the region. The relative share of foreign-borns within the total population was highest in Luxembourg (47 % of the resident population), followed by Cyprus (21 %) and Malta (20 %). Poland dropped from the first place in 2018 after roughly 100,000 Poles left the UK over the previous two years. Emigration is particularly difficult to measure. East-west migration. Population archives. Throughout history, the region has been a central part of global migration systems which its States helped to establish and shape, mainly through mercantilist and colonial expansions. In absolute terms, the main groups of EU-27 citizens acquiring citizenship of another EU-27 Member State were Romanians becoming citizens of Italy (6.5 thousand persons) and Germany (4.3 thousand persons), around half of the acquisitions of citizenship by Poles becoming citizens of Germany (6.2 thousand persons), and half of Italians becoming citizens of Germany (4.0 thousand persons). 2018 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics (or older versions) in various forms (including Excel spreadsheets) and other complementary data products, including Annual Flow Reports, Fact Sheets, and Profiles of Lawful Permanent Residents and Naturalized Citizens. 24 Sep 2018 - 06:46 UTC. Historical population data. European Union immigration statistics for 2000 was 29,602,637.00, a 12.55% increase from 1995. Home Office, Immigration Statistics, year ending September 2019. Highest share of national immigrants for Romania, lowest for Luxembourg. In 2018, there were an estimated 2.4 million immigrants to the EU-27 from non-EU-27 countries and about 1.1 million people emigrated from EU-27 to a country outside the EU-27 - see Figure 1. The cookies store information anonymously and assign a randomly generated number to identify unique visitors. As of 2019, the number of international migrants worldwide stood at almost 272 million (or 3.5 percent of the world’s population), according to UN Population Division estimates. In addition, 1.4 million people previously residing in one EU-27 Member State migrated to another Member State. Although high percentages are shown in red in the map, high numbers are not necessarily bad per se (if emigration is counteracted by high birth rate or immigration, as in the case of Ireland and Portugal). This cookie is installed by Google Analytics. European Union immigration statistics for 2010 was 43,696,432.00, a 18.8% increase from 2005. Of these, 3.6 million were from countries now in the European Union and 5.9 million were from non-EU countries. Romanian, Polish, Italian and Portuguese citizens were the four biggest groups of EU-27 citizens living in other EU-27 Member States in 2019 (see Figure 7). Different demographic developments are observed in eastern and western Germany. Migration is influenced by a combination of economic, environmental, political and social factors: either in a migrant’s country of origin (push factors) or in the country of destination (pull factors). 2.4 million immigrants entered the EU-27 from non-EU-27 countries in 2018. Further Press Releases. Eurostat International Migration statistics: Immigration . The EU-27 Member State with the highest naturalisation rate in 2018 was Sweden (7.2 acquisitions per 100 non-national residents), followed by Romania and Portugal (with 5.6 and 5.1 acquisitions per 100 non-national residents, respectively). The cookie is used to store information of how visitors use a website and helps in creating an analytics report of how the website is doing. An analysis of the age structure of the population shows that, for the EU-27 as a whole, the foreign population was younger than the national population. EU-27 Member States granted citizenship to 672 thousand persons in 2018. 21.8 million people (4.9 %) of the 446.8 million people living in the EU-27 on 1 January 2019 were non-EU-27 citizens. For emigration, the highest rates in 2018 were reported for Luxembourg (23 emigrants per 1 000 persons), Malta (19 emigrants per 1 000 persons), Cyprus (18 emigrants per 1 000 persons), and Romania (12 emigrants per 1 000 persons). The topic of immigration looms large, as immigration numbers have grown in the last 27 years. Foreign population made of non-EU-27 citizens in most EU-27 Member States. Immigration of this kind embodies not only lawbreaking but also unfairness, penalizing those from other countries who wish to live in the United States but abide by the established rules for doing so. EU Member States granted citizenship to almost 1 million persons in 2013, Population without the citizenship of the reporting country (tps00157), Immigration by five year age group, sex, and citizenship (migr_imm1ctz), Immigration by five year age group, sex and country of birth (migr_imm3ctb), Immigration by age , sex and broad group of citizenship (migr_imm2ctz), Immigration by age, sex and broad group of country of birth (migr_imm4ctb), Immigration by sex, citizenship and broad group of country of birth (migr_imm6ctz), Immigration by sex, country of birth and broad group of citizenship (migr_imm7ctb), Immigration by five year age group, sex, and country of previous residence (migr_imm5prv), Immigration by age group, sex and level of human development of the country of citizenship (migr_imm9ctz), Immigration by age group, sex and level of human development of the country of birth (migr_imm10ctb), Immigration by age group, sex and level of human development of the country of previous residence (migr_imm11prv), Immigration by broad group of country of previous residence (migr_imm12prv), Emigration by five year age group, sex and citizenship (migr_emi1ctz), Emigration by five year age group, sex and country of birth (migr_emi4ctb), Emigration by five year age group, sex, and country of next usual residence (migr_emi3nxt), Emigration by broad group of country of next usual residence (migr_emi5nxt), Acquisition of citizenship by sex, age group and former citizenship (migr_acq), Residents who acquired citizenship as a share of residents non-citizens by former citizenship and sex(%) (migr_acqs), Acquisition of citizenship by sex, age group and level of human development of former citizenship (migr_acq1ctz), Loss of citizenship by sex and new citizenship (migr_lct), Population on 1 January by age, sex and broad group of citizenship (migr_pop2ctz), Population on 1 January by age group, sex and citizenship (migr_pop1ctz), Population on 1 January by age group, sex and country of birth (migr_pop3ctb), Population on 1 January by age, sex and broad group of country of birth (migr_pop4ctb), Population on 1 January by sex, citizenship and broad group of country of birth (migr_pop5ctz), Population on 1 January by sex, country of birth and broad group of citizenship (migr_pop6ctb), Population on 1 January by age group, sex and level of human development of the country of citizenship (migr_pop7ctz), Population on 1 January by age group, sex and level of human development of the country of birth (migr_pop8ctb), EU and EFTA citizens who are usual residents in another EU/EFTA country as of 1 January (migr_pop9ctz), Population (Demography, Migration and Projections), Knowledge Centre on Migration and Demography, European Commission — Migration and Home Affairs, Legislative documents — European agenda on migration, Press materials — European agenda on migration, Global Citizenship Observatory (GLOBALCIT), The CLANDESTINO project on irregular migration in the EU, https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php?title=Migration_and_migrant_population_statistics&oldid=505845, Asylum seekers usual residents for at least 12 months, Belgium, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Cyprus, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, United Kingdom, Norway, Switzerland, Bulgaria, Czechia, Denmark, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Sweden, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Refugees usual residents for at least 12 months, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czechia, Denmark, Germany, Estonia, Ireland, Greece, Spain, France, Croatia, Italy, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Hungary, Malta, Netherlands, Austria, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Sweden, United Kingdom, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, Switzerland, Belgium, Germany, Estonia, Greece, Spain, France, Italy, Cyprus, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Austria, Portugal, United Kingdom, Switzerland, Norway, Bulgaria, Czechia, Denmark, Ireland, Croatia, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Romania, Slovenia, Slovakia, Finland, Sweden, Iceland, Liechtenstein. 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