The Dutch settlers called themselves Voortrekkers. It was the gradual dispossession of local Khoikhoi pastoralists by early Dutch settlers that opened up the area for European settlement. Southern Africa - Southern Africa - Independence and decolonization in Southern Africa: After the war the imperial powers were under strong international pressure to decolonize. The Cape settlement was built by them in 1652 as a re-supply point and way-station for United East India Company vessels on their way back and forth between the Netherlands and Batavia (Jakarta) in the Dutch East Indies. New answers . Thus by 1672, the permanent indigenous residents living at the Cape had grown substantially. Get an answer. African National Congress; political party in South Africa that led struggle for voting rights for black South Africans (founded 1912). When war broke out between the United Provinces of Netherlands against both Britain and France; the VOC declared itself the rightful owner of the Cape district, which included Table Bay, Houtbay and Saldanha Bay in 1672. What influenced the location of the town in the Table Bay area was the availability of fresh water which was difficult to find in other areas. European traders bought gold from Africa and exchanged it for spices and silk in Asia. The Dutch Cape Colony was divided into four districts. In 1797 their populations were:[7]. ... but many other white settlers were landless. Many more Europeans moved in over time including Germans, French, and Dutch settlers. The coritemp. Leibrandt, P47 - 48, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dutch_Cape_Colony&oldid=1000605569, Former settlements and colonies of the Dutch East India Company, States and territories established in 1652, States and territories disestablished in 1806, 17th-century establishments in the Cape Colony, 1806 disestablishments in the Dutch Empire, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 31 August 1737 – 19 September 1737 (died after three weeks in office), 1772 – 23 January 1773 (died at sea on his way to the Cape), This page was last edited on 15 January 2021, at 21:17. Indian slaves from the Dutch colonies had been introduced into the Cape area of South Africa by the Dutch settlers in 1654. The support station gradually became a settler community, the forebears of the Boers, an ethnic group in South Africa that later appropriated the name "Afrikaners". The Dutch were the first to really begin colonizing South Africa, with Dutch settlers called Afrikaners fighting violently against the indigenous Khoikhoi people for control. The original European settlers in South Africa were DUTCH. Also called Afrikaners, who were the Dutch settlers in South Africa repeatedly driven inland by British settlers. In 1652 a Dutch expedition of 90 Calvinist settlers under the command of Jan Van Riebeeck founded the first permanent settlement near the Cape of Good Hope. The Dutch East India Company established a toehold in Cape Town on the southwestern tip of modern South Africa. Settlers were leaving Cape Town in their creaking ox drawn wagons and moving into nearby fertile valleys. In 1670 the French attacked Saldanha Bay, exposing the vulnerability of the settlement. German South Africans refers to South Africans who have full or partial German heritage.. A significant number of South Africans are descended from Germans. b. Finally, the Boers began a mass migration away from the British called the Grea… It was the gradual dispossession of local Khoikhoi pastoralists by early Dutch settlers that opened up the area for European settlement. These areas were separated by the Amstel River (Liesbeek River). The first colony in modern-day South Africa was the Cape Colony which was owned by the Dutch. The shipwreck victims built a small fort named "Sand Fort of the Cape of Good Hope". The settlement established in the Cape in 1652 provided fresh food supplies for ships sailing to the east. Britain united Boer republics with Cape Colony to form new, independent state (1910). In 1615 ten British prisoners were also dumped on Robben Island and in 1648 the Dutch dumped mutineers on the shores of Table Bay. https://www.politifact.com/.../coulters-strange-claim-dutch-settlers-preceded-bla [5], Conflicts with the settlers and the effects of smallpox decimated their numbers in 1713 and 1755, until gradually the breakdown of their society led them to work for the colonists, mostly as shepherds and herdsmen. In the 1670s the VOC committed itself to establishing a permanent settlement at the Cape. The Boers, also known as Afrikaners, were the descendants of the original Dutch settlers of southern Africa. Settler Colonialism and Afrikaner Nationalism. Read More on This Topic. ... epidemic The end of British trade sanctions against France The institution of the system of racial segregation called Apartheid The opening of the Suez canal. CD Colin Pretorius 2013. Today, descendants of the Boers are commonly referred to as Afrikaners. The Boers (Dutch settlers) in South Africa resented British rule. When European ships landed on the shores of Table Bay they came into contact with Khoikhoi. Along the West Coast of Africa, British charter companies clashed with the forces of the Dutch West India Company over rights to slaves, ivory, and gold in 1663. The VOC acted as an agent of the Dutch government in Asia by expanding the Dutch influence by taking possession of land, expanding trade routes and establishing trade outposts. Dias went as far as Port Elizabeth before turning back presumably due to protests by his ship crew. As these farms were labour-intensive, Vryburghers imported slaves from Madagascar, Mozambique and Asia (Dutch East Indies and Dutch Ceylon), which rapidly increased the number of inhabitants. [4], The VOC favoured the idea of freemen at the Cape and many settlers requested to be discharged in order to become free burghers; as a result, Jan van Riebeeck approved the notion on favorable conditions and earmarked two areas near the Liesbeek River for farming purposes in 1657. History of South Africa, 1484 - 1691, G.M. In response, the stadtholder, who had taken up residen… Jan van Riebeeck was aboard one of these ships. A. Heese, Den Herkoms van de Afrikaner 1657 - 1867. The British sent a fleet of nine warships which anchored at Simon's Town and, following the defeat of the Dutch militia at the Battle of Muizenberg, took control of the territory. Thus, the order to set up a permanent settlement was an attempt by the Dutch to exclude the British with whom the Dutch were at war. By 1655 some company employees were growing their own vegetable plots near the castle. The name derives from “hot and tot [iii] ,” two sounds the Dutch interpreted as being common among the indigenous people’s language, just as the ancient Greeks called barbarians as such because they apparently made “bar” noises. They were called Boers (Dutch for farmer), or Afrikaners – Dutch with a mix of Flemish, German and French Huguenot heritage. Van Riebeeck complained that the land available was insufficient to meet the agricultural demands of the settlement both for farming and grazing company cattle. Here, Matt Lowe looks at the history of Dutch settlement in South Africa in the 17thcentury and considers how this played a part in later South African history. The Dutch settlers were unhappy with British rule and became even angrier when the British outlawed slavery in 1835. The Dutch were the first Europeans to colonize the Cape. A punitive expedition of one hundred and fifty men was sent by de Almeida to deal with the Khoikhoi. However, most of the settlers remained in the colony under new leadership of the British. Between 1652 and 1691 a Commandment, and between 1691 and 1795 a Governorate of the United East India Company (VOC). During a visit in 1672, the high-ranking Commissioner Arnout van Overbeke made a formal purchase of the Cape territory, although already ceded in 1660, his reason was to "prevent future disputes". Question. Under the terms of the Peace of Amiens of 1802, Britain acceded the colony to the Dutch on 1 March 1803, but as the Batavian Republic had since nationalized the United East India Company (1796), the colony came under the direct rule of The Hague. For instance, in 1654 complete starvation was averted by the arrival of Tulp from Madagascar with rice supplies. Later on, the school was also attended by the children of the indigenes and the Free Burghers. Boer, (Dutch: “husbandman,” or “farmer”), a South African of Dutch, German, or Huguenot descent, especially one of the early settlers of the Transvaal and the Orange Free State. These men had been recruited for service with British forces in the Crimean War (1854-6) and were stationed in England. Starting in the 17th century, Dutch settlers relied on slaves to build up South Africa. The British government paid owners for their slaves, but the Boers complained the payments were too small. The Afrikaners were the people living in the Cape who intermarried with the British and became British subjects. To supplement their labour, slaves were imported, at first from West Africa and later in larger numbers from Madagascar, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and the Dutch East Indies. Afrikaners The first Dutch Settlers were called Boers. Also called Afrikaners who were the Dutch settlers in South Africa repeatedly driven inland by British settlers - trivia question /questions answer / answers In 1652 the powerful Dutch East India Company built a fort and established a supply station under the command of Jan Van Riebeeck on a site that later became Cape Town. During the tenure of Simon van der Stel, the colony was elevated to the rank of a governorate, hence he was promoted to the position of "Governor of the Cape". Because the Dutch East India Company’s early farming ventures at Table Bay proved inadequate for this purpose, lands were assigned to independent Dutch settlers beginning in 1657. Thus, the settlement steadily spread from shores of Table Bay to other parts of the Cape. de Jong. In the 17th century, the southernmost point of Africa where the Atlantic and Indian oceans meet became a desirable half-way haven for the Dutch East India Company which was trading with India. In 1633 a wooden church was erected in Nieuw Amsterdam and in 1642 it was replaced by a stone church inside the Fort. Cape Dutch architecture is a traditional architectural style found mostly in the Western Cape Province in South Africa, here's a brief look at the history of the design. A. He pointed out that three young Black men were shot dead in a car in South Africa in the same week that Mr. Horner was killed. In order to avoid collision with the Bantu peoples advancing south, north and west from east central Africa, the VOC agreed in 1780 to make the Great Fish River the boundary of the colony. By 1700, the traditional "Khoekhoe" lifestyle of pastoralism, which they had learnt from Bantu agriculturalists and pastoralists, had disappeared. In January 1806, the British occupied the colony for a second time after the Battle of Blaauwberg at present-day Bloubergstrand. As a result it was looked down on as a kombuistaal (kitchen language) by the wealthier settlers who spoke High Dutch. The slaves that the settlers imported added to the bloodline of the settlers, as did the French Hugenots of 1688 and British settlers of 1820. in 1834 slavery was abolished in the cape . Between 1652 and 1691 a Commandment, and between 1691 and 1795 a Governorate of the United East India Company (VOC). After the first settlers spread out around the Company station, nomadic European livestock farmers, or Trekboeren, moved more widely afield, leaving the richer, but limited, farming lands of the coast for the drier interior tableland. After the Transvaal Boers took up armed resistance in 1880 and war started. In the 17th century, the southernmost point of Africa where the Atlantic and Indian oceans meet became a desirable half-way haven for the Dutch East India Company which was trading with India. Settlers were leaving Cape Town in their creaking ox drawn wagons and moving into nearby fertile valleys. The Cape society in this period was thus a diverse one. Updated October 18, 2020. The name expressed the king’s optimism that a sea trade route to India could be opened up via the Cape. The last, Rensselaerswyck, was the only successful patroonship in New Netherlands. That same year the VOC granted men permission to own land, build farms and improve food supply. In 1795, France occupied the Dutch Republic. After the war, the natives ceded the land to the settlers in 1660. A. Balkema, Kaapstad, 1971. The Dutch were the first Europeans to colonize the Cape. The Boers were people who settled in the Transvaal region of South Africa in the 17th century. Sharpeville Massacre South African police shot non-violent protesters (protesting against pass laws) in Sharpeville township; 69 deaths (1960). Union of South Africa 1910. In 1503, Antonio de Saldanha, a Portuguese explorer caught in a storm sailed into Table Bay, mistakenly assuming he had already rounded the Cape. The first Europeans to settle in South Africa were the: British Germans Dutch French Huguenots. In 1806, the Cape, now nominally controlled by the Batavian Republic, was occupied again by the British after their victory in the Battle of Blaauwberg. The Boers were Dutch settlers who colonized several regions in what is today South Africa. From 1820 to 1824, about 4 500 immigrants arrived from Ireland, England and Scotland. Cape Town was founded by the Dutch East India Company or the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC) in 1652 as a refreshment outpost. Rating. The emergence of Afrikaans reflects this diversity, from its roots as a Khoe-Dutch pidgin, to its subsequent creolisation and use as "Kitchen Dutch" by slaves and serfs of the colonials, and its later use in Cape Islam by them when it first became a written language that used the Arabic letters. Whites never encountered black Africans until 1770 for one reason, that is that the black Africans entered South Africa hundreds of years after the Dutch arrived . VOC Cape Colony at its largest extent in 1795, Colonies of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (1815–1962), Commanders and governors of the Cape Colony (1652–1806). Updated 2/3/2014 3:30:58 PM. orary documents suggest that the servants were acting under orders. 1856 - The Boers of Transvaal declare their own republic. By 1620, the VOC was the largest corporation in Europe trading in cotton and silk from India and China. In 1600 the East India Company of the British was formed, and this was followed by the formation the VOC in Netherlands in 1602. On his return Dias erected a cross (on the Gulf between the Mountains later named by sailors as ‘False Bay’). In 1497 Vasco da Gama and later Ferdinard Magellan also sailed round the Cape all the way to India. The two areas which were allocated to the freemen, for agricultural purposes, were named Groeneveld and Dutch Garden. Hostility between British and Dutch settlers, known as Boers or Afrikaners, led to the Great Trek of 1835-43, a migration of Boers from the Cape who founded Natal, Orange Free State, and Transvaal. When war between the British and French broke out once more in 1806, the British permanently occupied the Cape Colony. By the middle of the 17th century the Dutch had replaced the Portuguese and the Spanish trading networks and established their own. As a result it was looked down on as a kombuistaal (kitchen language) by the wealthier settlers who spoke High Dutch. The Dutch colonization of the Americas began with the establishment of Dutch trading posts and plantations in the Americas, which preceded the much wider known colonization activities of the Dutch in Asia.While the first Dutch fort in Asia was built in 1600 (in present-day Indonesia), the first forts and settlements along the Essequibo River in Guyana date from the 1590s. These were especially poor wretches living in desperate circumstances or mercenaries who had been unemployed since the end of the 30 years war. They were ordered to sell their produce to the company and forbidden to trade with the Khoikhoi. Jan van Riebeeck, who founded the first colony at Cape Town in 1652, was an official of the Dutch East India Company. By the time of British rule after 1795, the sociopolitical foundations were firmly laid. In the summer months the Khoikhoi moved around between the areas of Table Bay, Swartland and Saldanha Bay in search of fresh grazing pastures with their cattle herds. Also called Afrikaners who were the Dutch settlers in South Africa repeatedly driven inland by British settlers - trivia question /questions answer / answers selfstudyhistory.com It remained… ... Before any settlement was established at the Cape, many ships called in at Table Bay for refreshment. The Cape Colony (Dutch: Kaapkolonie) was a Dutch United East India Company (VOC) Colony in Southern Africa, centered on the Cape of Good Hope, whence it derived its name. Historically the Khoikhoi were referred to as Hottentots, a term first coined by the Dutch settlers of the Cape region. Some of his crew went to a nearby Khoikhoi settlement in the area around Salt River to trade for cattle and sheep. This changed early in the 17th century when the Dutch and English formed trading companies that sought to challenge the Portuguese and Spanish domination of the European trade with Asia. Dutch expansion into areas around Table Bay and beyond resulted in conflicts with the Khoikhoi who lost grazing pastures as settlers occupied their land and in some instances seized their cattle. The Patriot revolutionaries then proclaimed the Batavian Republic, which was closely allied to revolutionary France. They then divided into the Transvaals and Orange Free State. The expansion was so evident that the VOC complained in 1661 that Van Riebeeck was establishing a colony and a town a plan that had been discouraged by the company. The Dutch marked their permanence by building a five-pointed stone castle on the shores of the bay, a structure that continues to dominate the city centre of Cape Town. Large numbers of people from Great Britain settled in South Africa after gold and diamonds were discovered. 76 G. M. Theal in his History of South Africa under the D.E.I.C., ii, 28, gives a highly tendentious account of this episode, laying the blame for the violence and robbery on the Khoi servants and exonerating the settlers under Willem van Wyk. By the 1660s, the settlement showed growth in the number of buildings and European visitors began to refer to the settlement as a town. [4] The Khoena ("People") were disgruntled by the disruption of their seasonal visit to the area for which purpose they grazed their cattle at the foot of Table Mountain only to find European settlers occupying and farming the land, leading to the first Khoi-Dutch War as part of a series of Khoekhoe-Dutch Wars. Britain seized Natal in 1843 but the other two territories became Boer republics. In 1480, Portuguese ships landed on the shores of the West Coast of Africa. As the only permanent settlement of the Dutch United East India Company not serving as a trading post, it proved an ideal retirement place for employees of the company. In the 1600s both the VOC and East India Company companies were increasingly using the Cape as a halfway stop  in their maritime trade and occasionally set up tents along the shore to trade with the Khoikhoi. ANC. The Great Trek, as this particular migration is called, was the first anti-colonial movement in South Africa. Along the West Coast of Africa, British charter companies clashed with the forces of the Dutch West India Company over rights to slaves, ivory, and gold in 1663. Most of these originally settled in the Cape Colony, but were absorbed into the Afrikaner and Afrikaans population, because they had religious & ethnic similarities to the Dutch and French. Log in for more information. Modern day South Africa has had contact with Europeans for centuries, and the first group to settle there were the Dutch. Finally, the Boers began a mass migration away from the British called the Great Trek. They were called Boers (Dutch for farmer), or Afrikaners – Dutch with a mix of Flemish, German and French Huguenot heritage. The outpost was intended to supply VOC ships on their way to Asia with fresh fruits, vegetables, meat and to enable sailors wearied by the sea to recuperate. The growth of the Ottoman Empire disrupted overland trade routes to Europe. The first school to be built in South Africa by the settlers were for the sake of the slaves who had been rescued from a Portuguese slave ship and arrived at the Cape with the Amersfoort in 1658. The more modern name for the white South Africans descended from Dutch settlers (earlier known as Boers). The Dutch lost New Netherland to the English during the Second Anglo-Dutch War in 1664 only a few years after the establishment of Wiltwyck. 1833 - Slavery is abolished by the British. The Dutch language was taught at schools as the main medium for commercial purposes, with the result that the indigenous people and even the French settlers found themselves speaking Dutch more than their native languages. It was many years later, however, in 1652 when the Dutch East India Company established a small settlement at the Cape of Good Hope. However, although the descendants of the settlers have kept many of their traditions alive, they have also borrowed from those around them. The first white settlement in South Africa occurred on the Cape under the control of the Dutch East India company. The Boers (Dutch settlers) in South Africa resented British rule. This group of first settlers was led by Jan van Riebeeck. Who were the first European settlers in India? 1 Answer/Comment. Asked 2/3/2014 2:09:17 PM. There, they encountered a group called the Khoikhoi who used the land to … The peace between Britain and Napoleonic France had broken after one year, while Napoleon had been strengthening his influence on the Batavian Republic (which he would replace with a monarchy later that year). In 1814 a treaty confirmed British ownership of Cape Colony. The first European settlers in South Africa were sponsored by the Dutch East India Company which controlled Netherlands trade between India and East Asia. Today, descendants of the Boers are commonly referred to as Afrikaners. Traders of the United East India Company (VOC), under the command of Jan van Riebieeck, were the first people to establish a European colony in South Africa. The region of the Western Cape which includes the Table Bay area (where the modern city of Cape Town is located) was inhabited by Khoikhoi pastoralists who used it seasonally as pastures for their cattle. 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