However, manipulatively, they began constructing the fortress with all available manpower. The site of the fort is marked with the letter a. This in no way means it was an easy time in the timeline of Calcutta’s history. A supreme court administering English law … On the river side the rear entrance led to the Ghats or landing places. Calcutta became the intellectual centre of the subcontinent. The cornerstone was laid in 1839; the building was completed in 1847. The map is oriented east (north is to the left). He was an actor and director, known for Karnarjun (1941), Kabuliwala (1957) and Jar Jetha Ghar (1949). Murshidabad was capital of Bengal. Inside the walls was the imposing Factory or Government house, the armory, storage facilities and the clerks’ quarters. Completely separated from Bengal Presidency were Straits Settlements in 1867, Aden, Burma in 1937. British mercantile, banking, and insurance interests flourished. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. - DRPWXK from Alamy's library of millions of high resolution stock photos, illustrations and vectors. Hindustan under the Great Mughals was an economic superpower, and Bengal was its most glittering, coveted, asset. By now the city, however, was self-sufficient in many ways and it continued to remain an important centre of administration even after the transfer of the capital. It was named after King William III of England and Ireland and II of Scotland. The Calcutta Scottish was inspected by the Prince of Wales in 1928. It was also the first cathedral built in the overseas territory of the British Empire. In this sense, "British India" did not include the princely states directly ruled by Indian princes, though under a close eye from the British authorities. The abolition of inland customs duties in 1835 created an open market, and the construction of railways (beginning in 1854) further quickened the development of business and industry. In World War II, Japanese air raids upon the Calcutta docks caused damage and loss of life. There is a brass line on the steps of the Kolkata GPO marking the southeast bastion of the fort. Presidency College - 1870 Designed by Robert F. Chisholm in pure Italian style derived from Renaissance Classicism Lectures and Seminars are held in the hall Mayo College of Mant at Ajmer was built in Indo - saracenic. Find premium, high-resolution stock photography at Getty Images. Old Fort William was functional between 1700 and 1756. In 1814 the Lottery Committee was constituted to finance public improvement by means of lotteries, and between 1814 and 1836 it took some effective measures to improve conditions. The large lake east of the fort is now called Lal Dighi. Alipore Jail in Calcutta, India, built by the British to hold politcal prisoners during the time of British Rule over India.. Subscription-free stock image available for license. Writers’ Building, Tank Square. Calcutta was recaptured in January 1757 by Robert Clive, one of the founders of British power in India, and by the British admiral Charles Watson. This section of the town was called the European Town but colloquially as the White Town. The map is oriented east (north is to the left). There was a bastion in each corner to provide flanking fire, here shown as conical projections. With its proto-industrial economy, Bengal contributed to the first Industrial Revolution in Britain (particularly in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution). Insistent agitation led to the annulment of this partition in 1911, but at that time the capital of British India was removed from Calcutta to Delhi, where the government could enjoy relative calm. Meanwhile, as Calcutta’s population grew larger, social problems also became more insistent, as did demands for home rule for India. Kolkata was the capital of the British Indian empire until 1911 when the capital was relocated to Delhi. Planned by British architect William Emerson, the building is constructed of white marble sourced from Rajasthan and combines Indian and British … Calcutta Senate Hall 1864 was designed by P.W.D. It was Hedges’ idea to build a fortified port close to the mouth of the Hooghly River to protect British interests from other European powers as well as from subordinates of the Nawab of Bengal. A supreme court administering English law began to exercise original jurisdiction over the city as far as the Maratha Ditch (now Acharya Prafulla Chandra and Jagadish Chandra Bose roads). The British Indian regiment was sent as aid to the Civil Power in 1930. One of Kolkata's most enduring Raj-era edifices, it extends over an area of 70.9 hectares. It sits on the eastern banks of the Hooghly River, the major distributary of the River Ganges. In 1706 the population of Calcutta was roughly between 10,000 and 12,000. This area around Fort William-Calcutta-became the seat of the British province known as the Bengal Presidency. Bengal, 1710, map published by Pieter van der Aa. One of Kolkata ’s finest historical monuments, Fort William was built during the time of the Bengal Presidency and is an architectural marvel. The Indian merchants lived in the Black Town north of the fort whereas the Indians of lower socioeconomic class lived towards the south. Three principal avenues led out of this entrance, at the end of each was an artillery battery. The municipal corporation was established in 1841. Victory in the June 1757 battle of Plassey opened up a vast majority of Northern India to the British and contributed to the emergence of Calcutta as the Imperial Capital. Map of Calcutta (c. 1900), from the 10th edition of. For most of the 17th century the commercial interests of the East India Company (EIC) was managed from Fort St. George in Madras (Chennai). The White (British) Town was built on ground that had been raised and drained. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership. He died on June 11, 1962 in Calcutta [now Kolkata], West Bengal, India. Engineers in classical style. It was named after King William III of England in 1700. Kolkata, formerly known as Calcutta in English, is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal and is located in eastern India on the east bank of the River Hooghly.The city was a colonial city developed by the British East India Company and then by the British Empire. Map for: A History of the Military Transactions of the British Nation in Indostan, Robert Orme, 1778. The east face fronting the river extended 700 feet. The original fort was built by British East India Company and the work started under the supervision of John Goldsborough in 1696. Calcutta in 1756 was a segregated city. Besides the English it housed large numbers of people of Portuguese, Armenian and Eurasian descent. The nawab was defeated shortly afterward at Plassey (June 1757), after which British rule in Bengal was assured. KM : 56 Qualité de la monnaie : SPL Métal : Cuivre Pays : INDIA-BRITISH Valeur faciale : Pice Atelier : Calcutta Type de produit : Monnaie Année : Year 37 (1829) 6.63 gr The north face ran inland for 310 feet and south face 500 feet. Fort William in the modern city of Kolkata is the headquarters of the Eastern Command of the Indian Army. Fort William is a fort in Hastings, Calcutta . In 1696 when Charles Eyre was Chief Agent of the EIC in Calcutta, the authorization for transfer of the Jagirdari (Tenancy) of the villages of Sutanuti, Kalikata and Govindapur was obtained from Prince Azim-us-Shan, the Governor of Bengal and grandson of Emperor Aurangzeb. 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